Finally, Eccles and Wigfield stress the importance of “cost” in an individual’s decision to engage in an activity. “Cost refers to how the decision to engage in one activity (e.g., doing schoolwork) limits access to other activities (e.g., calling friends), assessments of how much effort will be taken to accomplish the activity, and its emotional cost” (Wigfield & Eccles, 2000). When the cost of an activity is too high, individuals may choose not to engage in that activity, even if they enjoy the activity or value the outcome of the activity. Therefore, we must assess the hidden costs of academic achievement when working with underachievers. Conversely, the high cost of failure can also impel someone toward achievement.