- Student perceptions of school events, teacher expectations, and student-teacher interactions impact their academic achievement.
- Cognitive activity influences behavior, and negative or faulty cognitions are often automatic and involuntary.
- Desired behavior change may be affected through cognitive change.
- Many students inaccurately attribute their lack of academic success to external, uncontrollable sources.
- Cognitive interventions are time-limited, short-term, structured, goal-oriented, and collaborative, making them ideal for teachers to use in their classrooms.
- Solution-focused cognitive approaches emphasize that students learn to become personally responsible for their academic success.
- Adolescents’ beliefs about an internal state or feeling are not always in sync with their behavior.
- Guided self-reflection can help reduce this discrepancy.
- To evaluate if a perception is accurate, the teacher must consider whether it is valid and/or reasonable.
- Clear expectations and consistent feedback from the teacher tend to increase student achievement.
- Classroom environments that are supportive, tructured, allow for student decision making, change groupings often, and provide adequate challenge tend to be more effective learning environments.
- Cognitions or perceptions are only faulty is they are inflexible, inaccurate, or extreme.
- To assuming personal responsibility, a student must acknowledge that he chooses to react or behave in a certain manner, that no one can “make” him do or feel anything.
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